for energy sellers
The net electricity consumption of the average household will almost double, as the average car in central Europe will require about 3000-4000 kWh for charging per year. In addition, these cars will usually be plugged in for much longer than needed, typically at home during the night or at work during the day. At current spot-market prices and spreads, this flexibility represents a substantial monetary value for day-ahead/intraday optimization. Spot market spreads might even increase with the further growth of renewables, fostering the attractiveness of demand-side management even further.